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Behavioral Economics

What is Behavioral Economics?

Behavioral economics is an analysis of the influence of psychological perceptions on an individual’s economic decision-making process. The value of acknowledging behavioral economics for advertisers is immense, as it provides a more in-depth explanation of the human.

In the rational world, individuals will often consider the best options to achieve maximum gain and pleasure. In economics, the theory of reasoned action claims that when people encounter alternative approaches under local conditions, they will prefer an option that significantly increases their content. This analysis implies that considering their expectations and limitations, and individuals can make sensible decisions by efficiently comparing the risks and consequences within each choice open to them. The ultimate verdict taken will be the most acceptable option for the individual. A practical individual has consciousness and is undisturbed by feelings and external influences, thus deciding what is ideal for oneself. Behavioral economics argues that people are not rational and unwilling to make responsible choices.

Behavioral economics relies on economics and psychology to analyze why people often make unwise decisions, and why or how human behavior does not meet economic theories’ demands. Statements such as spending for coffee, attending college, or embracing a better routine, how much to devote to savings, etc.; are some choices numerous individuals make at a particular stage in their lives. Why a person has decided to choose A rather than choice B? is what behavioral economics aims to acknowledge. 

Humans draw conclusions that are not in themselves due to them being prone to sensitivity and getting affected frequently. For instance, as per rational choice theory, if Charles wishes to reduce body fat and know the number of carbs comprised in each food item, he would only settle for food items with limited calories. Behavioral Economics suggests that even though Charles tries to lose more weight and keeps his focus on eating nutritious food; his end-to-end behavior will be susceptible to cognitive bias, emotion, and social control. A TV commercial promotes a brand of frozen yogurt at a reasonable cost and mentions that all individuals require 2,000 calories a day to function efficiently. Even so, the delicious picture of frozen yogurt, price, and accurate statistics will lead Charles to fall into tempting cravings and slowly face a setback from the losing weight journey, revealing his lack of self-control.

It is wrong to imply that the more choices a salesperson can give the customer, the smarter. If the options offered do not include the primary choice, the introduction of numerous alternatives can lead to the loss of desire to buy. It is known as the dilemma of preference. The more decisions we encounter, the more confused we appear, and the least inclined we are to reach a choice that will lead to a purchasing decision.

These are a few of the several psychological variables that influence customer behavior. If you are willing to pursue a marketing career, you’ll quickly figure out that psychology can help you discover valuable information about the way customers perceive. Behavioral economics tends to help marketing experts to refine marketing campaigns and produce concrete results.

Prospect Theory

 Kahneman and Tversky released Prospect Theory in the late 1970s: Analysis of Decision under Risk, which employed rational science to describe the discrepancies between decision-making in economics and neo-classical hypothesis. The theory of prospect comprises of two stages: the editing stage and the analysis. In the editing stage, by using different algorithms, complicated scenarios are simplified. In the analysis stage, incorporating other psychological concepts, uncertain approaches are analyzed, including Reference reliance: When assessing results, the decision-maker recognizes the “reference standard.” When the results get contrasted to the reference level, it is graded as gains if they are larger than the reference level, and if less than the reference level, it is graded as losses.

  • Loss aversion: Instead of the desired comparable benefits, the losses are prevented. In their early 1990s paper, Kahneman and Tversky observed that the typical loss aversion rate was about 2.25; therefore, the losses were higher 2.25 times compared to the corresponding revenue gain.
  • The non-linear probabilities are weighing: people when making decisions outsize the minimal prospects and undersize the significant possibilities resulting in an inverse S-shaped probability considering the purpose.
  • Decreasing the exposure to gains and setbacks: the aggregate impact on the person making decision profits or prosperity decreases. The scale of progress and setbacks when compared to the reference level, increases the average values.

Prospect theory can address all that can be explained by the two major current decision—affect theory and rank-dependent utility theory theories. The prospect theory is employed to clarify concepts that current decision theories have considerable challenges in demonstrating. That includes shifting labor supply trends, asymmetric cost elasticity, tax avoidance, and co-movement of asset prices and demand.

In 1992, Kahneman and Tversky provided an updated description of prospect theory in the Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, which they named cumulative prospect theory. The latest idea excluded the process of editing prospect theory and concentrated instead on evaluation. Its prominent characteristic included its proportionately permitted non-linear probability grading, as suggested previously in the idea of John Quiggin’s rank-dependent utility. Psychological elements including arrogance, discrimination in perception, and the consequences of minimal contact also are components of the approach. Other advances entail the University of Chicago event, the particular behavioral economics version of the Quarterly Journal of Economics, and the 2002 Kahneman Nobel Prize for possessing “cohesive finding in economics science from psychological research”.

Loss Aversion and the Endowment Effect

The loss aversion can be defined by prospect theory, which suggests that a person’s value feature (either for income or otherwise), profits ar bulging whereas protuberant for casualties. In other terms, individuals are increasingly vulnerable to setbacks than profits of comparable size. Presented below is an example to support this theory.

The reference point in the figure is the actual location of the person concerned. In contrast to objective reference point assets and liabilities are measured. The value feature assumes the asymmetrical S-shape as the marginal value (or susceptibility) decreases when relative gains and losses rise in scale. The dollar lost more than what the dollar won. In standard economics, profits and setbacks are equally handled –money lost cancels out the money won. Golf is the ideal illustration of the reference point: par. Each spot on the golf field has a set of motions correlated within it; the pair lays the foundation for the descent– though not exceptional – results. For a skilled golfer, a birdie (one move below par) is a win, and a bogey (one move above par) is a loss. Economic experts have evaluated two circumstances that a participant may encounter when he senses the hole:

  • Putt to prevent a bogey
  • Putt to render a birdie

An economist’s team studied greater than 2.5 million puts in precise detail to assess the assumption and discovered that, whether the putt was complicated or straightforward, the participants were further effective in placing it on target at any range from the hole the birdie. The disparity in their performance rate was 3.6 percent for the pair (to prevent the bogey) or the birdie.

Nudge Theory

In behavioral science, political theory and economics nudge is a theory that recommends constructive feedback and implicit feedback to manipulate individuals or groups’ actions and judgment. Nudging is in comparison to specific means of achieving compliance, including such schooling, regulation or compliance. The idea has affected U.S and British leaders. There are many nudge systems globally (UK, Germany, Japan and others) and international scale.

James Wilk before the mid-1990s established the first and foremost explanation of the terminology and the related concepts defined by D.J Stewart of Brunel University as “the art of the nudges”. Which also, focuses on the structural aspects of medical psychiatry tracing back to Gregory Bateson. It includes the interventions of Milton Erickson, Watzlawick, Bill O’hanlon, and Fisch. Regarding this version, the nudgesare a micro-targeted model oriented to a small set of individuals, regardless of the expected approach’s size. Nudge is a micro-targeted model introduced to a small group of individuals, irrespective of the desired approach’s size.

Nudging strategies tend to draw on people’s judgmental methodologies. In other terms, a nudge changes the situation so that when using a technique or mechanism one decision-making, the eventual decision would be the most favorable or preferred result. An illustration of this is the swapping of snack foods in a supermarket, as such that fruits and other nutritious choices placed beside the checkout counter. In contrast, to a different section of the supermarket, junk food is transferred.

The United States appointed Sunstein, in 2008, who sought to define the concept, as an Information and Regulatory Office administrator. Notable purposes of the theory of nudge comprise the founding of the British Behavioral Insights Team in 2010. David Halpern referred to it as the nudge unit. The Penn Medicine Nudge Unit is the globe’s first behavioral development organization to be part of the healthcare sector.

Prime Minister, David Cameron and President, Barack Obama have tried to use nudge theory to promote domestic agendas over time. New South Wales Government has developed a Behavioral Insights Training Group in Australia. In this area of business development and organizational society,the idea of nudge has been applied, such as health, safety and environment (HSE). As far as its implementation to HSE is concerned, for the nudge to reach a ‘zero accident culture’ is among the critical purposes.

Top tech businesses are pioneers in the application of nudge theory in a business context. Such companies use nudges in several ways of improving efficiency and workers satisfaction. Lately, other firms are attracting attention using the so-called ‘nudge management’ to maximize their middle-class workers’ efficiency. In several parts of the world, the utilization of behavioral perspectives and nudges has taken place.

Criticism of Behavioral Economics

Nudging has also faced criticism. From the King’s Fund for Public Health, Tammy Boyce said: “We need to move away from short-term. Politically motivated initiatives such as the ‘nudging people’ idea, which is not based on any good evidence and does not help people make long-term behavior changes.” Cass Sunstein replied thoroughly to the criticism in his The Ethics of Power, arguing in support of nudging cases that impair sovereignty, endanger the integrity, breach freedoms, or economic losses. Research has been performed on this by ethicists.

Numerous respondents produced these claims in discussions between Bovens and Goodwin. For instance, Wilkinson fines nudge for being deceptive, whereas others, such as Yeung, challenge the technical validity. Others, such as Hausman & Welch, have investigated if nudging based on justice must be permitted; Lepenies & Malecka ought to criticized if nudging is consistent with the legal system. Constitutional lawyers have also addressed the position of nudges and legislation.

Behavioral economists, including Bob Sugden, also highlighted that, even after the proponents’ claims to the contrary, the underpinning prescriptive baseline of nudging is still homo economics. Regarding emotional manipulation, nudging is indeed a euphemism as exercised in communal business is pointed out. There has been exhilaration and, at the same time, underlying criticism of the nudge theory in the projects of psychologists of Hungarian, in their goal, they prioritize emotional involvement in the nudge.


Behavioral Economics (B.E.) uses social experimenting to establish human decision-making concepts and has selected several prejudices due to how people perceive and experience. B.E.seeks to transform the way economists think regarding people’s expectations of worth and desires. According to B.E., individuals may not always be self-interested. Increasing advantages and mitigating expenses to individuals with secure interests reasoning is prone to inadequate information, input, and processing capacities, including confusion. When making the decisions, they are affected by its sense. The bulk of our preferences are not the product of thorough deliberation. Humans are prone to be affected by the readily available data, effects created artificially, and the context having significant documentation. We exist as weak indicators of intentional conduct more often when we restrain transformation. Also unprotected to skewed reminiscence along with being impacted by the emotional and the physiological conditions. Eventually, we are social animals with social interests, such as those embodied in confidence, mutuality, and equality; we are vulnerable to social expectations and the necessity for individual self.